Conventions for Bibtex labels

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The conventions for generating the labels of BibTeX entries are as follows:

  • For up to four authors the label is obtained by the first three letters of the names of the authors (the first is capitalized) the year of publication a colon and some string (acronym of conference or journal for papers and acronym of publisher for books).
  author = {G. Bontempi and M. Birattari},
  title = {From linearization to lazy learning: A survey of
           divide-and-conquer techniques for nonlinear control},
  journal = IJCC,
  year = 2005,
  volume = 3,
  number = 1,
  pages = {56--73},
  • If the authors are more than four, only the first three names are used for generating the label. After the three names the string -etal follows, and then year, colon, and acronym (as in the previous case). This prevents from generating long labels.
  author = {L. Bianchi and M. Birattari and M. Chiarandini and
            M. Manfrin and M. Mastrolilli and L. Paquete and
            O. Rossi-Doria and T. Schiavinotto},
  title = {Hybrid metaheuristics for the vehicle routing problem
           with stochastic demands},
  journal = JMMA,
  year = 2006,
  note = IP,
  • There are some particular cases:
The name of one author is shorter than three letters (e.g. Xu). In this case only the available letters are used.
  author = {H.-D. Jin and K.-S. Leung and M.-L. Wong and Z.-B. Xu},
  title = {An efficient self-organizing map designed by genetic
           algorithms for the traveling salesman problem},
  journal = SMCB,
  year = 2003,
  volume = 33,
  number = 6,
  pages = {877--887},
The name of one author is composed (e.g. Di Caro). In this case only the first letter is capitalized:
  author = {M. Birattari and G. {Di Caro} and M. Dorigo},
  title = {Toward the formal foundation of Ant Programming},
  booktitle = ANTS-III,
  pages = {188--201},
  year = 2002,
  editor = {M. Dorigo and G. {Di Caro} and M. Sampels},
  volume = 2463,
  series = LNCS,
  address = BERLIN,
  publisher = SV,
If the name of the author contains an accented letter (e.g. Stützle), the letter without the accent is used instead
  author = {M. Birattari and T. St\"utzle and L. Paquete and
            K. Varrentrapp},
  title = {A Racing Algorithm for Configuring Metaheuristics},
  booktitle = GECCO,
  pages = {11--18},
  year = 2002,
  editor = {W. B. Langdon and E. Cant\'u-Paz and K. Mathias and
           R. Roy and D. Davis and R. Poli and K. Balakrishnan and
           V. Honavar and G. Rudolph and J. Wegener and L. Bull and
           M. A. Potter and A. C. Schultz and J. F. Miller and
           E. Burke and N. Jonoska},
  address = SANFRANCISCO,
  publisher =   MK,
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